The first billion years after the Big Bang is the period where the first stars and galaxies form yet this period remains one at the frontier of observations. In this talk, I will discuss new techniques that promise the possibility of transforming our understanding of this period. First, I will discuss applications of radio observations of the redshifted 21 cm line. Observations of the sky averaged global signal with single dipole experiments and measurements of fluctuations with interferometers could offer new insights into reionization and early X-ray and UV emission of the first galaxies. I will also discuss the possibility for "intensity mapping" in atomic and molecular lines as an alternative to traditional galaxy surveys. Focussing on CO intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization, I will explore how such measurements could provide a large scale context for our understanding of how galaxies form and produce metals.