We are entering a golden era for stellar physics driven by new satellite and telescope observations of unprecedented quality and scope. Thanks to the launch of the NASA Kepler Mission the past three years has seen dramatic progress in the study of other stellar systems in our galaxy. Kepler has revolutionized the field of asteroseismology, the study of stars by observation of their natural oscillations. In this seminar I will discuss many aspects of this work, including the asteroseismic study of solar-type stars, exoplanet host stars, and also the investigation of red-giant stars and stellar populations studies (which directly inform models of the evolution of the Galaxy).