Abstract - "We now have a good understanding of most of the modes of galaxy formation for massive galaxies during the past 10 Gyr based on data from space and ground based telescopes. I will discuss how we have just recently measured the role of major and minor mergers, star formation and gas accretion in the formation of massive galaxies down to z = 0. This is possible due to new near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging from NICMOS and WFC3 focused on massive galaxies in the distant universe, coupled with spectroscopy and deep imaging at all wavelengths to obtain spectral energy distribution information. I will further discuss how galaxy simulations based on CDM are not able to reproduce the properties of distant galaxies or the characteristics of their observed evolution. I will further show how galaxy formation processes can potentially be used as a method for better understanding cosmological features, including the temperature of the dark matter and the underlying cosmological parameters."